Volcano Monitoring

GeoNet collects a wide range of different types of data that are used as part of it’s volcano monitoring activities.

Seismic and acoustic (infrasound) data are collected and stored with other similar data GeoNet collects. Waveform data can be retrieved using GeoNet’s FDSN webservice. Earthquakes located in volcanic areas using these data can be retrieved from GeoNet’s earthquake catalogue.

The majority of GeoNet’s ground deformation data collected in volcanic areas uses GNSS (commonly referred to as GPS) receivers and antennas. There is a description of GeoNet’s geodetic data.

Repeat visual observations of volcanoes are made using remotely operated cameras. GeoNet provides access to camera images.

Most of the remainder of GeoNet’s volcano data are collected using a diverse range of different techniques. The specific technique used depends on the data being collected and the constraints imposed by the volcanic environment. There are several types volcano geochemistry data, but also non-GNSS geodetic data, and ground, water, and fumarole temperatures. Data are typically time series, consisting of repeated observations of the same volcanic feature.

Volcano Time Series Data

Time series data can be obtained using GeoNet's Tilde time series API, and Tilde data discovery GUI. You can check what data are available, retrieve data, and obtain summary statistics about data. Practical examples are also documented in tutorials.

The frequency of observations in time series data varies depending on the data type, collection frequency and collection method.

The observation error is dependent on the data collection method. For example, observations of the concentration of analytes in water collected at springs, pools and streams are derived from laboratory analyses, and are not provided with errors; a zero error is therefore given.

For more information on volcano time series data and how to understand what data you can retrieve, please see the Volcano Tilde Notes.

Volcano Feature Metadata

Information about features at which volcano data are collected are stored in our Delta sensor network database

A subset of those metadata relevant to manual and lower rate data collection are available through Tilde and the Tilde data discovery GUI.