Volcano Monitoring

GeoNet collects a wide range of different types of data that are used as part of it’s volcano monitoring activities.

Seismic and acoustic (infrasound) data are collected and stored with other similar data GeoNet collects. Waveform data can be retrieved using GeoNet’s FDSN webservice. Earthquakes located in volcanic areas using these data can be retrieved from GeoNet’s earthquake catalogue.

The majority of GeoNet’s ground deformation data collected in volcanic areas uses GNSS (commonly referred to as GPS) receivers and antennas. There is a description of GeoNet’s geodetic data.

Repeat visual observations of volcanoes are made using remotely operated cameras. GeoNet provides access to camera images.

Most of the remainder of GeoNet’s volcano data are collected using a diverse range of different techniques. The specific technique used depends on the data being collected and the constraints imposed by the volcanic environment. There are several types volcano geochemistry data, but also non-GNSS geodetic data, and ground, water, and fumarole temperatures. Data are typically time series, consisting of repeated observations of the same volcanic feature.

Volcano Time Series Data

Time series data can be obtained using GeoNet's FITS data service. This includes a lot of example requests for time series data to either download or make plots.

The frequency of observations in time series data varies depending on the data type, collection frequency and collection method.

The observation error is dependent on the data collection method. Observations of the concentration of analytes in water collected at springs, pools and streams are derived from laboratory analyses, and are not provided with errors; a zero error is therefore given.

For more information on volcano time series data and how to understand what data you can retrieve, please see the Volcano FITS Notes.

Volcano Feature Metadata

Features at which volcano data are collected can be found using GeoNet’s FITS data service’s site query.

The types of data collected can be found using GeoNet’s FITS data service’s type query.

The method used to collect or analyse specific types of data can be found using GeoNet’s FITS data service’s method query.